It has been reported a great variation on the composition between goat breeds [10, 24]: muscle between 69 and 50%, 34–11.8% for bone (a high rate correspondent to young animals), and a percentage of fat between 23.7 and 5%, that could be considered, in general, as low, but it depends of the age, breed and, obviously, fatness score. Currently, there are more than 1 billion heads around the world [2], with 57.4% of the census located in Asia, 37.0% in Africa, and 3.5% in America, representing Europe 1.6% and Oceania 0.4%. It was hypothesized that the different order effect is affected by the familiarity or unfamiliarity that the consumer or panelist has with the product taste. Related to age and weight, the results from Ref. It can be assessed in a comparative way with photographic models, or using measurements based on different anatomical points. However, a common factor is the presence of few studies in comparison with ovine, especially those that characterize the quality of its products (related to carcass and meat). Some results obtained from several studies with cold carcass weights from 3.2 to 16.0 kg are compiled in Table 1, being the variability mainly dependent on the studied breed and slaughter weight. Because the knowledge generated can be applied on everyday management, building a more sustainable and prosperous future on goat. As happens in other species, as ovine, consumers pay the same price for fat, muscle, and bone, all inclusive in the commercial cuts. On the other hand, some studies have shown that a correct management of goats on grasslands can also help to increase plant biomass and biodiversity [3], having also a social function by fixing people to the territory, avoiding more movements to big nucleus-cities, and consequently depopulating the rural areas. As a general rule, by increasing the aging time, tenderness will increase [42]. Proximate composition of meat can be defined by the quantification of its different components such as moisture, ash, protein, or fat evaluated according to International Organization for Standardization Protocols (ISO). Breeds are classified in 5 specialities: meat, milk, prolificacy, fiber (pashmina—cashmere and mohair), and skin. Goat is the most widespread livestock species, as [1] reported and listed. The bucks were fed a good quality orchardgrass-alfalfa hay and whole barley. and Ripoll et al. Related to sensorial analyses, a trained panel let obtain objective scores of the sensorial attributes of meat [15] and the use of different kinds of consumer hedonic test show the acceptability of consumers related to the product [16]. Goat meat can be considered as red meat, as those from other small ruminant species, according to its proximate composition. Mutton is a female (ewe) or an adult noncastrated male (ram) or a castrated male (wether) with more than two permanent incisors in wear. Carcass traits, such as the conformation as well as fat distribution within the carcass, have a great importance in meat production, because of their economical implications. [10], carcass in small ruminants can be divided into five main regions corresponding to different commercial cuts: leg, ribs, flank, shoulder, and neck. At the end, increasing demand and improving marketing for meat should entail increased production, which must be worthwhile for producers, sustainable for the planet, economically profitable for the production chain, of healthy quality, as well as affordable for consumers [21]. Detailed information about different methodologies cited in this section and along the chapter can be consulted in [17, 18, 19]. [40], gender did not affect texture parameters also after 3 days of aging, in which medium values are between 8.3 and 8.4 kg/cm2 on shear force. There is no international carcass grading system for sheep, lambs, and goats, but some generalizations can be made, and in particular, sex and age are important. Also the best meat yields are those from kids of 8–10 weeks old. On the same study [30], the gender had a significant effect on live and carcass cold weights; however, no differences were reported on carcass yield. However, kids from dairy breeds had the highest values of acceptability both in tenderness and in overall respect to any other types (light or heavy), which show that dairy kids are preferred respect to those from meat breeds. [38] on meat breed Bermeya slaughtered at 7 kg or 10.5 kg CCW, only reported differences in redness and Chrome variables which increase with the slaughter weight. [34], differences in L* between breeds on light weight animals were not reported. 17078). In 2009, the University of Maryland Small Ruminant Extension Program began harvesting goats from the Western Maryland Pasture-Based Meat Goat Performance Test to collect carcass data. Slaughter weight also did not affect proximate composition [34], only fat percentage for the meat breed Pirenaica, which proportion decrease with the age of the animal from 2.05 to 1.37%. Its consumption varies widely depending on the region of the world considered. Carcass performance on suckling kids of 6–10 kg of life weight can present values between 60 and 65%, because in young animals, only skin and white offals are excluded. The differences between light and heavy carcasses in fat odor intensities (higher for heavy) can be associated with differences in the amount of adipose tissue, which imports the distinctive aromas in lamb [51], because fat traps aromatic compounds and enhances taste [52]. As Hungarian Sheep and Goat Breeders’ Association have reported [20] “Goat meat is a very palatable food with several positive physiological effects and nutritional values. [34] were not found differences between breeds on chemical composition neither on light or heavy kids, being comprised between 78.01 and 76.97% for moisture, 24.11 and 19.52% for crude protein, 1.11 and 1.03% for ash and 2.05 and1.09% for fat. It should be attractive with a good design, and if possible interactive, providing information on the product’s origin and background, its nutritive and sensory qualities and veracity between the written and the reality [21]. In Ref. This would allow the creation of universal and homogenous databases, letting the comparison of studies and their diverse variables in a global way around the world. Yield Grade 1. a. Consigners to the buck test were eligible to enter a goat in the contest. Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? Goats should be classified according to the following criteria. Sensory data can be obtained from a trained taste panel, which assesses the sensory profile and the intensity of the evaluated attributes or by a consumer test where acceptability scores of the hedonic perception about the evaluated meat samples are obtained. The lowest performances have been reported in animals of 120–180 days of age, from Chilean Creole breed, with a 45.1% carcass yield [28], and the highest at young Gigertana kids of 25 days of aging with a 70.6% carcass yield [29]. Also, dairy breeds are clearly separate from the other breeds by the composition of long chain PUFA fatty acids (especially C18:3 n-3, C22:5 n-3 and C22:6 n-3) on kidney knob fat. And as reported in [16], consumers under different testing environments had some similar acceptability scores for lamb and kids. Comparing plain or seasoned products from goat or beef [53] showed that goat meat is always differentiated in a triangular test. In 2012, the study was repeated, with 15 goats in each treatment group. In 2009, the University of Maryland Small Ruminant Extension Program began harvesting goats from the Western Maryland Pasture-Based Meat Goat Performance Test to collect carcass data. Over the last 50 years, as [3] compiled, goat population has multiplied by 2.4 times while other livestock species have maintained it or reduced. Then, slaughter weight has a stronger effect in organoleptic characteristics than breed per se, as happened in lamb, because the volatile precursors of aroma formation [48, 49] and their contribution to species flavor increases with animal age, although it could be modified by the diet [50]. Goat carcasses with less subcutaneous fat are more prone to moisture losses and cold shortening subsequent to chilling.


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