J Stored Prod Res 28(4):289-293, Batta YA (2005) Control of the lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) by treatments with residual formulations of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes). These are described in more, Pest monitoring is an important component, in the IPM postharvest practice for stored, Population density estimates and estimation. In general, the effectiveness of these two entomopathogens increased by increasing suspension concentrations and temperature. powder. The black-eyed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), contained in their pods, used for this experiment were purchased from a The LT50 and LT90 values of B. bassiana (1 × 106 conidia/ml) were 5.67 and 7.15 days at 26 °C and 5.47 and 7.50 days at 22 °C, respectively. Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are effective biological control agents against various pests (Roy et al. weight reduction, retardation in development and decreased reproduction [27]. %PDF-1.4 suffer considerable damage under storage. A conidial suspension was adjusted to 1 × 104 conidia/ml and 0.1 ml was sprayed onto Petri dishes (9 cm diameter, containing PDA), and the dishes were incubated at 25 °C. Of the many insects that, have adapted themselves to a diet of dried, vegetable material, a few are primary pests, of grain in that they are able to bore into, sound kernels. Each treatment (trap) was repeated three times and in three different insect population densities (3 insects per kg, 7 insects per kg and 15 insects per kg) artificially infested into 10 kg cowpea grains contained in plastic storage buckets. Some-, in the wetter parts of West Africa and Central, by qualitative losses affecting the mass of, the grain in store. Chickpeas were kept at − 20 °C for 2 weeks to eliminate all infesting pests before starting the experiments (Cherry et al. The seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus is an important tropical and subtropical pest of legumes distributed world‐wide. The insect responses towards the treatment depended on the type of plant, the time of exposure and also the mode of application. This paper carried out first exhausted investigations on pest status of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus on two food legumes namely chickpea (Amdoun 1 variety) and lentil (Ncir variety) during six months of storage. extracts has been reported to contribute to a great deal for synergism, which enhances the joint action of active compounds Tested Ageratum conyzoides, Blumea balsimifera. (2005) reported that B bassiana (0306 isolate) obtained from the insect belonging to the Scolytidae family did not have high virulence against C. maculatus. procedure as above to afford the ethanol extract. Braz Arch Biol Technol 39:99–104, Youdeowei A (1989) Major arthropod pests of food and industrial crops of Africa and their economic importance. Peasant farmers in northern Nigeria indigenously use many plants to protect cereals and legumes against pest damage during storage. Gbaye OA; Holloway GJ; Callaghan A, 2012. Egypt J Biol. The mortality rate was recorded daily for 8 days. 1996; Rice and Cogburn 1999; Padin et al. As human population grew, the demand for food increased, which was met by increasing the land area under cultivation. Vuill., Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch) Sorok, and Isaria fumosorosea Wize has been studied against various pests, in particular, C. maculatus (Vilas Boas et al. (2005) reported that the LT50 values for C. maculatus by M. anisopliae 0351 isolate and B. bassiana 0362 isolate at 1 × 108 spores/ml were found to be 3.27 and 3.11 days, respectively. glycosides on the ethanol and petroleum ether extracts were carried out using standard methods. 2002; Batta 2005; Cherry et al. two types of production functions (one for adopter and other C. maculatus caused large reductions in seed germination B. bassiana and M. anisopliae have been found to be the most effective EPF against various pests (Vilas Boas et al. Lawrence and Khan (2002) reported that two different B. bassiana isolates were applied to cowpea seed beetle at different temperatures (20, 25, and 30°C) and the lowest LC50 and LT50 values were determined at 30 °C. Senecio palmensis has been shown to have high antifeedant potency on the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata [28]. 2006). x�c`� Important rodent species damaging stored grains in India. tropical countries and popularly used as protein suppliment for meat and fish; moreover, it contains digestible The two extracts are effective in controlling the infestation of or serving as antifeedants against the cowpea plastic petri dishes (150 x 25 mm) covered with fine nylon netting that permits the passage of air only. The LT50 and LT90 values for M. anisopliae (1 × 108 conidia ml− 1) against C. maculatus were 4.44 and 5.34 days, respectively, at 26 °C, whereas at 22 °C, they were 5.46 and 6.52 days, respectively (Table 1). (1992) High temperature combined with carbon dioxide. as well as from improper storage conditions. feeding. The ability to protect the seeds from damage has been clearly shown by the It is a member of a group of beetles called Bruchids. Controlling insect pests in, stored grain and grain products can be very, that can infest grain. The spore suspensions were then filtered through two layers of cheesecloth to remove the micelle structures and were homogenized by vertexing for 3 min. Morallo-Rejesus, B., Maini, H.A., Ohsawa, K. International Symposium on Bruchids and Legumes, International Journal of Food Microbiology. University J Zoology 27:47–50, Padin SB, Dal-Bello G, Fabrizio M (2002) Grain loss caused by Tribolium castaneum, Sitophilus oryzae and Acanthoscelides obtectus in stored wheat and beans treated with Beauveria bassiana. Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Jammu, eld studies suggest that, under traditional. Archaeological evidence suggests an African origin with later world‐wide invasion facilitated by the last centuries’ legume trading and exchange. At the end of the growth period, 10 ml sterile distilled water containing 0.02% Tween 20 was added to each dish. By using this website, you agree to our The cowpea beans, however, are vulnerable to insect pests of which the cowpea weevil, spices such as chillies, garlic and neem leaves are also added to provide protection against pests. 500ml of the solvent was again poured onto the residue and extracted for another two days; the extract again was filtered Part of The ability to protect the seeds from damage has been clearly shown by the percent protectant ability (PPA) whose value at 0.20g dose for ethanol extract was 94.74% while for petroleum ether extract it was 81.82%. storage structures/areas requires fumigation. The seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus is an important tropical and subtropical pest of legumes distributed world‐wide. Callosobruchus maculatus is a major field to (78% chickpea and 33% lentil for highest infestation level 80%) and seeds weight (45% for chickpea endstream endobj A, large proportion of harvested food grain is, traditional storage structures for 6months to, different physical, chemical and biological, methods to protect stored grains against pest, infestation by mixing grains with protectant, made up of plant products. The efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae against Callosobruchus maculatus adults. say that both the petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of the Parkia biglobosa seeds were effective at high dosage rate, that It is necessary to use, eld demonstration of odour-based, host-food, All India Symposium on Modern Concept in Plant Protection, The Case for Bulk Storage and Handling of Wheat in P, uence of relative humidity and thermal acclimation on the sur, . year, which itself may be subject to failure. A systems approach rather than a piecemeal. of 30% or more are not uncommon (Greeley, harvest losses during storage may be as high, By contrast, the results of more detailed, storage systems in tropical countries, losses, period of storage and other factors. a 22 ± 1 °C, 1 × 106 conidia ml− 1; b 26 ± 1 °C, 1 × 106 conidia ml− 1; c 22 ± 1 °C, 1 × 108 conidia ml− 1; d 26 ± 1 °C 1 × 108 conidia ml− 1, The efficacy of Beauveria bassiana against Callosobruchus maculatus adults. cosmopolitan pest ranked as the principal post-harvest pest of cowpea in the tropics [5,6]. Chickpea was more The custom of, storing seeds, roots, herbs and dried meats, provided an easy living for insects that were. held at the Department of Agricultura Science, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 1986. Undoubtedly, they lived in, of seed that escaped the attention of birds, dried or decaying remains of plant or animal. Their initial attack opens the, way through the tough seedcoat. Saponins have been reported to exhibit clear insecticidal properties in They have a, synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. to have antifeedant activities against Spodoptera littoralis. some days before being exposed to a lethal, 10–20min. aluminum phosphide, dusts like Gammalin “A” dust, Lindane dust and Pirimiphos-methy1 (Actellic) have been extensively

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