© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009, The Role of Ecological Chemistry in Pollution Research and Sustainable Development, www.umweltbundesamt.de/uba-info-presse-e/2008/pe08-050.htm, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2903-4_1, NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security. This chapter gives an overview of recent trends of BFR concentrations in the environment, with some attention to the analytical methods and difficulties, and their toxicology. H�b```f``�f`e`��� �� l@���q�k``���:�Ŝe��,5�9�99�ؖ20�N��*'�� ��8�;����~Wh:#s����C6�\��*�%7R�F�2-�c(�d+I_ry"�[:5u� �֝��mE�f�Z}�ͬԔ�[�\�� �mK�عmj���Ρ~�'|��;�L�9�2�M�Vh)������EK&�KS �8�J���2O��;m�y!�nذ�0؀� �tǎv� �,����? Polder A, Venter B, Skaare J-U, Bouwman H (2008) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and HBCD in bird eggs of South Africa. The levels of PBDEs seem to be increasing, and several trends, including in humans, indicate that this increase may be rapid. ): De Boer J, Wester PG, Klamer JC, Lewis WE, Boon JP (1998) Brominated flame retardants in sperm whales and other marine mammals — a new threat to ocean life? For others the databases are still incomplete. She J, Petreas M, Winkler J, Visita P, McKinney M, Kopec D (2002) PBDEs in the San Francisco bay area: measurements in harbor seal blubber and human breast adipose tissue. De Boer J, Wester PG, van der Horst A, Leonards PEG (2006) Polybrominated flame retardants in The Netherlands — occurrence and indicative estrogenic potency. Guan Y-F, Wang J-Z, Ni H-G, Luo X-J, Mai B0-X, Zeng EY (2007) Riverine inpunts of polybrominated diphenylethers from the Pearl River delta (China) to the coastal ocean. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Jensen S (1966). The occurrence of high concentrations of certain PBDE isomers may be sufficient to elicit adverse effects in some wildlife. Additives include PBBs, PBDEs and HBCD. Covaci A, Gerecke AC, Law RJ, Voorspoels S, Kohler M, Heeb NV, Leslie H, Allchin CR, de Boer J (2006) Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in the environment and humans: a review. ?�4�$�$m6�V5�,,���Cj垺�t%�=>��P� \�� B���� P�tӒ����rK��-=���E����~�m�����%I�p���w�.�RfY|������{��4�_�*�ܪ�,�* �����9e�P���B�$�� Ր�=#�&f��� M��E�l��_��/#3�mu�(����l2��Jk��m��D�C�P�&��o�{�kL���1�A�2��uo4�۠� �B�J��� D�KR���7M��z�y��ݶ�T�i ��P�s���VA!� c�=������x�j�^��tB1�j�b�����"����j�>!�I0[L潳�g�v9ꚙK$������Z��*��ai̓��%���a�7��5��O �z#k�,�w_�d��y�p��=�K:R�'A�IJa���a-;�-}ȍ� �jک U G����DK1#|ʞ �P�m�6zPN���a)�FZ2 �d��J�˧�N�3�0R�{ZK��c�d�# ��h�|�%��7�Y�E>"l�=���S�w�K�,�U �0h�SԤ���19Wf���.C�4��0���`2�Z��!Ym�@{Nr����&=B�Mf��"�G��t�;�]w�KLѹ���s�u�Tg�V��!9��ۯ�L弹{�~Ex��t�}���ךk7��t�%�m6J ��j�7]DM�)�,�\�b� ��dȼ��U�Q�j'���q�i2|S� �L^�0�UdY�S�Uki�vY!+��zM�0�a�;�⼫s��*c �( ��߅�t�q�)v�nk��0���Z�"g�&������X7v����_����C�A%0��S�蹼Ϛ�O$�=@�u�քW�.����9��tzX�n��܃“���8M���Se΃Y μ~�>$,e�A}�8:;=� H�v�BQ� ���#ޛMǦ� ��Ww�HVwooN��l� Endocrine disruption, often through the thyroid gland is the most worrying effect of several BFRs. De Azevedoe Silva CE, Azeredo A, Lailson-Brito J, Machado Torres JP, Malm O (2004) Polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT in swordfish (. DecaBDE was recently banned in Europe for use in electric circuit boards, but applications in textile and furniture are still allowed. Bakker M, de Winter-Sorkina R, de Mul A, Boon PE, van Donkersgoed G, van Klaveren JD, Boumann BA, Hijman WC, van Leeuwen SPJ, de Boer J, Zeilmaker M (2008) Dietary intake of polybrominated diphenylethers in The Netherlands. However, our knowledge about these chemicals, their sources, environmental behavior, and toxicity is limited, making risk assessment difficult. De Boer J, Wells DE (2006). Flame-retardants (FR) are a group of anthropogenic environmental contaminants used at relatively high concentrations in many applications. %PDF-1.4 %���� Reutergårdh L (1988) Identification and distribution of chlorinated organic pollutants in the environment. Schecter A, Harris TR, Shah N, Musumba A, Päpke O (2008) Brominated flame retardants in US food. De Boer J, de Boer K, Boon JP (2000) Polybrominated biphenyls and diphenylethers. Legler J (2008) New insights into the endocrine disrupting effects of brominated flame retardants. Harrad S, Diamond M (2006) Exposure to PBDE's and PCBs: current and future scenarios. Morris S, Bersuder PH, Allchin CR, Zegers B, Boon JP, Leonards PEG, de Boer J (2006) Determination of the brominated flame retardant, hexabromocyclododecane, in sediments and biota by liquid chromatography- electrospray-ionisation mass spectrometry. Kierkegaard A, Björklund J, Fridén U (2004) Identification of the flame retardant decabro-modiphenyl ethane. In this paper, the current state of knowledge is reviewed and areas for further research recommended to improve future monitoring and risk assessment efforts. Korytar P, Leonards PEG, de Boer J, Brinkman UATh (2005b) Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography of polybrominated diphenylethers. BFRs are currently the largest marketed flame retardant group due to their high performance efficiency and low cost. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are ubiquitous chemicals with large and global industrial use, and many of them are still produced in large volumes. wۭK���o>L]��`.ʉ5u#3 �9]m�*)�G�ጟB� N��^e��r�~��$|>{DI��.P�Ida�1�Z7�Y����4��x��\,��O��׮t����Z�z��K���')�xD�����5�уi��+�3�{p$�$��@�*k�2�]��Q�\R2O��bX,��_��/��&a���. Law RJ, Herzke D, Harrad S, Morris S, Bersuder PH, Allchin CR (2008) Levels and trends of HBCD and BDEs in the European and Asian environments, with some information on other BFRs. Environmental contamination by brominated flame retardants (BFRs) has received a lot of attention in the scientific literature since the late 1990s. Kierkegaard A, Sellstroem U, McLachlan MS (2008) Environmental analysis of higher brominated PBDEs and decabro-modiphenyl ethane. This is a preview of subscription content. Part of Springer Nature. Takigami H, Suzuki G, Hirai Y, Sakai S-I (2008) Transfer of brominated flame retardants from components into dust inside television cabinets. ): Dye J, Venier M, Zhy LY, Cynthiar W, Hites R, Birnbaum L (2007) Elevated PBDE levels in pet cats: sentinels for humans? https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(01)00225-9. There is also concern that levels could cause adverse effects in sensitive human populations such as young children, indigenous peoples, and fish consumers. Lindberg P, Sellström U, Häggberg L, de Wit CA (2004) Higher brominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane found in eggs of peregrine falcons. A time-related trend study, 1972–1997. Andersson Ö, Blomkvist G (1981) Polybrominated aromatic pollutants found in Sweden. In the commercial market, more than 75 different BFRs are recognized. Environmental studies conducted primarily in Europe, Japan and North America indicate that these chemicals are ubiquitous in sediment and biota. Others, such as TBBPA, are reactive and are bound to the material chemically. Korytar P, Covaci A, de Boer J, Gelbin A, Brinkman UATh (2005a) Retention-time database of 126 polybrominated diphenylether congeners and two Bromkal technical mixtures on seven capillary gas chromatographic columns.


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